Allocate natural factors raskoobrazovaniya

Allocate natural factors raskoobrazovaniyaThere are natural factors raskoobrazovaniya: biotic and abiotic. The first are associated with the effect on humans of various living beings - from microorganisms capable of  cause epidemics, to communities of various species of animals as the main link in human food chains. Abiotic natural factors are very diverse. These include physical, chemical and climatic effects. Physical factors (temperature, light, electromagnetic phenomena and radioactive substances of the biosphere) affect the vital functions of a person, which sometimes leads to pathological processes.

Among the social factors, those that stimulate the movement and mixing of the population or create artificial barriers to mixing and thus affect the biological structure of populations are the most significant for the processes of race formation. According to V.P. Alekseev, the social structure of society acts as a filter that mediates the effect of biological factors of race formation. According to the force of influence on the race, V. P. Alekseev identifies seven social factors:

1) the nature of the development of the productive forces that determines social development;

2) marriage structure (exogamy or endogamy), family size;

3) the nature of the resettlement of human groups (continuous or intermittent resettlement);

4) social stratification (caste in marriage), when social frontiers act as genetic barriers (marriages within ethnic groups are more often than outside them);

5) the ethnic factor - ethnic boundaries do not coincide with racial ones. In the early stages of history, the coincidence between them was great due to the spatial alignment of the ranges of ethno - and race formation;

6) state borders;

7) psychological traditions and attitudes of certain mental stereotypes of behavior. The development of primitive society went through a long stage of existence of isolated communities within which marriages took place. Exogamy (the prohibition of marriages within a single community) almost did not break this isolation. Very soon a community of “blood” was established between exogamous groups, which was maintained and strengthened by the exchange of genes during the long life of these communities.

<H2> Mutations (process of mixing races) H2>

Muting (the process of mixing races) for thousands of years has been one of the factors in the formation of new types and the smoothing of differences. Its intensity increased with the increase in the number of ethnic units. The widespread occurrence of mixed groups is observed in America, where immigrants from Africa — the Negroes — formed a cross between the natives of this continent — the Indians — and the settlers from Europe. On the Asian mainland, there was also a process of mixing representatives of the Mongoloid and Caucasoid races. Changes in racial traits are noted at different times in different territories.

GF Debets (1961) revealed the following epochal changes on a large territory of Eurasia:

¦ increasing the head pointer;

¦ narrowing of the face (reduction of the zygomatic diameter);

¦ reduction of the relief on the bones of the skull, reduction of superciliary arches, protrusions and roughness;

¦ reduction of forehead tilting.

Similar changes were noted by researchers in other countries, although in various combinations of these signs with different intensity of variability.

For example, epochal shifts in the structure of the dental system are manifested in the reduction of the transverse and longitudinal dimensions of the crowns of the teeth, and the decrease in their number. The wisdom tooth of modern Belarusians, as well as in other ethnic groups, erupts with a delay of 7-10 years or does not erupt at all. If even in the pre-war period, the wisdom tooth erupted in most people between the ages of 16 and 18, then in our time it appears at 28–35 years old, and often is completely absent.

<H2>Race classification</h2>

In identifying races of the first (large), second (small), and third order (anthropological types), they are guided by the principle of the taxonomic value of racial traits depending on the time of formation of the racial stem (taxon) and the territory in which this trait distinguishes groups of people (Yarho, 1934 ).

The later a racial trait was formed, the less suitable it is for identifying the main races. The degree of pigmentation, the structural features of the face and head are the signs by which the differentiation of groups occurred from deep antiquity. They underlie the selection of large (that is, of the first order). When choosing a distinctive feature, its epochal variability is also taken into account. Thus, the zygomatic width and head index, which have changed significantly over the past two thousand years, are quite suitable for identifying anthropological types among chronologically simultaneous groups of the population, but not for distinguishing large races (Fig. 13).

The antiquity of the origin of a trait can be determined by its geographical distribution. Its manifestation in many populations over wide territories testifies in favor of the ancient local formation. In addition, it takes into account the historical consistency of the signs that form in the complexes characteristic of the definition of racial trunks (Fig. 14).

In the Soviet anthropology the racial classification of N. N. Cheboksarov was generally accepted. Initially, he singled out three great races. In 1979, he attributed the Australoids to a separate large race.

<H2>Great races</h2>

Equatorial, Or Australian Negroid, race.

Dark coloration of the skin, wavy or curly hair, wide, weakly protruding nose, low or medium pereose, transverse nostrils, large oral slit, thick lips.

Craniological signs: Large nasal pointer, low or medium symotic pointer, pronounced alveolar prognathism (protrusion of the front teeth).

Eurasian, Or European, race.

Light or dark complexion of the skin, straight or wavy hair, abundant growth of the beard and mustache, narrow, sharply protruding nose, high nose, sagittal nostrils, a small oral slit, thin lips. For the north-western variants, light eyes and hair are typical.

Craniological signs: Small or medium nasal index, high symotic index, orthognathism, small angle of horizontal profiling of the face, medium or strong development of the canine fossa.

Asian American, Or Монголоидная, раса.

Tawny skin, straight, often hard hair, weak or very weak growth of the beard and mustache, average nose width, low or medium height nose-length, slightly protruding nose in Asian races and strongly protruding in American, average lip thickness, flattened face, presence additional folds of the upper eyelid (epicanthus).

Craniological signs: Strong protrusion of the nose, flattened facial skeleton, i.e. a large nazomolar angle.

Lesser Races (Second Order Races)

Within the limits of large races, small ones are distinguished, the differences of which were formed at a later time as the range of habitat expanded within the initially populated area. Within Equatorial race There are seven minor races.

Australian race.

Dark skin, wavy hair, abundant development of tertiary hair on the face and body, a very wide nose, a relatively high pereodosy, average zygomatic diameter, high and medium height.

Vedoid race. По Compared with the Australian race, there is a weaker development of tertiary hair, a smaller nose, less prognathism, smaller head and face size, less growth.

The Melanesian race. Curly hair, in the abundant development of the tertiary hairline and strongly prominent brow ridges coincides with the signs of the Australian race.

Negro race. It differs from the Australian and Veddoid hairs with a very pronounced curly hair, from the Melanesian race - by thicker lips, a lower nose and flat back of the nose, the representatives of this race are on average taller.

<H2> Negril, Or Central African, race H2>

Negril, Or Central African, race. More plentiful development of tertiary hair, very short stature, thinner lips and a higher nasal pointer.

Bushman, Or South Africa, race. It differs from the Negro low growth, lighter skin, a narrower nose, a flatter face, a rare epicant, steatopigy (the presence of fat deposits mainly in the gluteal region (in women) (Figure 15).

Ethiopian, Or East African, race. It occupies a middle position between the Equatorial and Eurasian races in color and shape of hair. Skin color from light brown to dark chocolate, hair more often curly, but less spirally curled than blacks, weak or medium beard growth, moderately thick lips. The facial features are much closer to the Eurasian race: the width of the nose in most cases is from 35 to 36 mm, the nasal pointer is from 69 to 76; a flattened nose is rare, prognathism is weak or absent, the face is very narrow, the facial pointer is high, the shape of the head is dolichocophalic, the height is above average.

Among Eurasian race There are 6 minor races, or races of the second order.

South Indian, Or Dravidian, race. It is similar with Ethiopian, differs in more direct form of hair and a little smaller growth. It occupies an intermediate position between the Veddoid and Indo-Mediterranean races.

Indo-Mediterranean race. Dark hair И Eyes, dark skin, wavy hair, elongated nose, very narrow face, dolich and mesocephaly.

Atlanto-Baltic Race. Light skin, hair and eyes, long nose (as a percentage of the lower part of the face), tall.

Central European race. Compared with Atlanto-Baltic darker hair and eyes.

The Baltic-Baltic Sea. The skin is light, but more pigmented than the average European. Average beard growth, short face, short nose with a straight or concave back and a significant percentage of raised bases, medium height.

Balkan-Caucasian race. Dark hair, dark or mixed eyes, bulging nose, more abundant development of tertiary hair, relatively low И Very broad face, brachycephaly, tall.

<H2> Mongoloid (Asian-American race) big raceH2>

Mongoloid (Asian-American race) big race differentiated into 9 minor races.

North Asian race. По Compared with other races, a smaller percentage of thick hair, lighter skin, less dark hair and eyes, large size and facial hair, very weak growth of beard and thin lips, high orbital index, large width of the nasal opening, orthognacy, high vertical brain-brain index . Presented in two options.

Baikal option Differs weakening of pigmentation, growth of the beard, a more flattened face, low perenosy, thin lips.

Central Asian Close to the Arctic race or the Baikal variant.

Arctic, Or Eskimo, race. Compared to the North-Asian race, tighter hair, darker skin and eyes, lower frequency of epicanthus, smaller zygomatic width, narrower pear-shaped hole and a low nasal pointer on the skull, less orthogonal face, lower nose with protruding nose, thick lips, more dlyhokefalny skull.

Far Eastern race. Compared to North Asian, hair is tighter, darker pigmentation of the skin, thicker lips, mesognatousness: a narrower face, a greater height of the skull than those of the North Asian and Arctic races.

South Asian race. Dark complexion, more thickened lips, high nasal pointer, short and flattened face.

American race. It varies greatly in many ways, which indicates its later formation compared to others. Closer to the Arctic race, but differs in the almost complete absence of the epicanthus, darker skin, strongly protruding nose.

Ural race. The average position between the White Sea-Balti and North Asian races. The concave back of the nose, the features of the Mongoloid type are softened.

South Siberian, Or Trananskaya, race. It occupies an intermediate position between the Caucasoid and Mongoloid races. A significant percentage of mixed eyes. Large zygomatic width.

The Polynesian race. Neutral: wavy hair, light brown or yellow skin, curly hair, moderately developed tertiary hair, moderately protruding nose, mesognetization, lips somewhat thicker than those of Europeans, strongly protruding cheekbones, tall.

Kuril, Or Ain, race. Neutral: for the development of hair cover is one of the first places among the races, hair is hard and wavy, flattened face, a large percentage of the Epicanthus, growth is lower than that of Polynesians.

NN Cheboksarov emphasized that there is no strict delimitation in the racial picture of the world, since individual small races are transitional between large ones. Thus, the Ethiopian and South Indian (Dravidian) races occupy an intermediate position between the equatorial and Eurasian large races. The South Siberian and Ural races are intermediate between Caucasoid and Mongoloid. Between the equatorial and Mongoloid races intermediate - Polynesian and Kuril (Ainu). N.N.Che-boxars often presented his classification scheme as a circle, highlighting the intermediate minor races between the large and thus emphasizing their confusion (Fig. 16).

Data on the degree of similarity between races, their ranges and antiquity help to clarify the relationship of races. However, the genesis of races is not always clearly reflected in this classification scheme (the origin and interaction of the Bushman, Ainu, Polenezi and some other races are not disclosed on the basis of the scheme).