Characteristics of the "big" races

Characteristics of the As noted above, in anthropology, morphological signs are most often used to describe races, less commonly physiological, biochemical, and immunological signs. For representatives of large

races most characteristic are the following complexes of signs.

Монголоидная раса It has Color of the skin from dark to light, while the intensity of the color increases as the place of residence approaches the equator. Hairas a rule, rigid and straight, darkly pigmented. The development of hair on the face of men is very poorly developed, the hair on the body is almost completely absent.

Body length among Mongoloids in different populations varies slightly and approximately corresponds to the average value of this indicator for humanity as a whole.

Face Mongoloids large, flattened, with significant alveolar prognathism (lip protrusion). Prognathism in Mongoloids is associated with the development of the soft tissues of the face, and not the bone base and teeth, like Negroids. 90–95% of Mongoloids have a fold of the upper eyelid - Epicanthus, the outer corner of the eye is raised. Nose in Mongoloids, it varies greatly both in size and in shape; a narrow, slightly protruding nose with a small or medium height in the area of ​​the nose bridge is more common.

The described complex of characters is very stable within the range of the Mongoloid race. The exception is made by the native inhabitants of America - the americanoids, who separated early from the Asian population of Mongoloids. It is believed that they retained the ancient primary complex of Mongoloid features, on the basis of which the classical Mongoloids developed. Amerikanoids are characterized by a significantly prominent nose and the absence of an epicanthus, these two signs bring them closer to Caucasians.

European race. Representatives of different populations of this race have different The degree of pigmentation of the skin, iris and hair. Most Caucasians, especially in the southern regions, have dark hair and eyes, their skin is usually dark-skinned in different shades. The most depigmented inhabitants of the northwestern and northeastern parts of Europe. Hair Caucasians are more often either soft and straight or wavy. Curly hair is more common in southern populations, although it is rarely found everywhere. Tertiary hair is developed strongly in the temperate zone, and moderately or weakly in the south and north.

Growth among Caucasians varies from high to low, the most common are individuals with a mesomorphic body type.

Face sharply profiled, often narrow, flattened in a vertical plane. Eye section horizontal with a slight elevation of the outer corner of the eye. Epicanthus of varying severity is often found in the northern populations. Nose Caucasians often narrow, straight or with a convex back, with a medium or high bridge.

Australian Negroid race characterized by a very dark color of the skin, hair and eyes. Dark variants of pigmentation prevail in this race, although very dark ones are rare. In some isolated populations of Africa, light-eyed blacks are described, there are fair-haired Australian aborigines, and red-tinged Papuans, but their frequency is close to the mutation rate. Hair representatives of this race are curly or wavy, and not only on the face, but also on the body. The hair growth of the face in men belonging to this race is more pronounced than that of the Mongoloids, but significantly weaker than among the Europoids.

For the Australian Negroids, the largest variation in body height indicators is characteristic; this race includes representatives of the tallest and the smallest tribes.

Face in blacks, it is progressive due to the protrusion of the skeleton (jaws, teeth and nasal bones) and thick lips with a large mucous part. Nose wide, less prominent with medium or low bridge of nose. In general, the face of the representatives of the Australian-Negroid race has an average or strong horizontal profiling.