Southwest Asia

Southwest AsiaAccording to modern concepts, its territory was part of the western primary center of racialization, in which Caucasoid and Australoid complexes of features were formed. He reached the southern regions of Central Asia. The primary australloid complex served as a transitional basis on which, during resettlement to other climatic zones, a Caucasoid and Negroid development took place.  races The Australoid complex of features in its protomorphic variant was less pronounced than Caucasoid. The australoid race was formed later as a result of isolation on the Australian mainland and on some islands in the Pacific Ocean.

The modern indigenous population of Southwest Asia belongs to Southern Caucasians. The Antero-Asian (Armenoid) race of the second order, characterized by dark pigmentation of hair, dark skin, elongated nose, very developed tertiary hair, include the Arabs of Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Iraq, as well as Jews, Armenians, Turks , Kurds and Greeks. Most of the populations are relatively short-headed, among them there are types that are more similar to the Mediterranean race of southern Europe and northern Africa (Bedouins of Arabia). The population of Yemen is marked Negroid impurity, which arose as a result of ancient contacts with populations of Africa. For the inhabitants of Iran, a gradual transition from the Armenoid to the Indo-Pamir race is characteristic, which is distinguished by gracility and a weaker development of hair, a straight, thin nose and darker skin coloring.

Residents of Afghanistan, parts of Iraq and the mainland of the Arabian Peninsula belong to different Indo-among-terrestrial races. The groups adjacent to the Transcaucasian regions show the features of the Balkan-Caucasian race. Differences from the previous one are manifested only in a high percentage of convex backs of the nose. There is no doubt a genetic close relationship in these populations.

Among the Turkish population, there are representatives Balkan-Caucasian race - Ottoman Turks. In certain groups of people (Yuruki, Hezarians), an admixture of the Mongoloid race is noted against the background of these features. There are also groups of light-pigmented Caucasoid types. The population of the island of Cyprus of Greek and Turkish origin belongs to the southern variant of the Mediterranean race.

From the Paleolithic epoch, intensive processes of rass formation took place on the territory of South-West Asia. This is evidenced by the morphological differences between individual groups of Neanderthals (Skhul, Tabun, Zuttie, Jebel Kafzeh, Amud, Shanidar sites). Thus, the male skulls of the Skhul group (Skhul G /, Skhul V, Zuttie, Jebel Kafzeh VI) differ from the skulls of the Persian group (Amud and Shanidar) by more progressive features of the structure and individual racial features.

Mesolithic finds were made in the caves of Hotu (Northern Iran), Shukba and Carmel (southeastern part of the Mediterranean coast). They represent the bone remains of different preservation of more than 140 individuals. The population combined the features of the Indo-Mediterranean race and the Negroid. Thus, female and male skulls from the Hotu Cave are close to Cro-Magnon type with such features as low and wide face, very low angular orbits, strongly protruding chin, long and mesocranes. Negative-like features - prognancy, wide nose, etc. can be traced on individual turtles. On craniological materials from the Shukb and Carmel caves, the negroid features are more pronounced: with a body length of about 160 cm, the large diameter of the skull, dolichocene, wide and low face, alveolar prognathism . Some groups of the population also had Australoid signs. This is evidenced by a find in the Ghar-i-Kamarband cave on the southeast coast of the Caspian Sea in northern Iran. In the study of the skull of a 12-13-year-old girl, prognathism, coarseness, and protrusion of the chin profile line were revealed.

The racial traits of the later population are analyzed not only by craniological materials, but also by monuments of ancient art. From the 5th-4th millennium BC. er among the population of Asia Minor are expressed features of the Caucasoid race. A series of skulls obtained during excavations in the village of Al-Ubanda in Southern Messo-potamia and belonging to the 4th millennium BC. e., have the following racial features: sharply protruding, narrow nose (nasal pointer 48), elongated, narrow face (front pointer 55, zygomatic diameter 128 mm), dolichocranial (cranial pointer 73). These are signs of the Persian type of Caucasoid race. Similar features are inherent in the series of skulls from the village of Gis-sar (Damgan region in northern Iran), as well as from the cemetery near the village of Alishar near the town of Bogazkea (the ancient capital of the Hittites of the 4th – 2nd c. BC).

The modern ethnic and anthropological composition of the population of South-West Asia was formed as a result of complex historical processes.