Transitional forms between rectified man

Transitional forms between rectified manTransitional forms between a straightened Man and a Reasonable Man are united under the common name A reasonable archaic Man (Noah Sapiens Archaic), which existed in different territories from 400 thousand to 250-230 thousand years ago. It is believed that it was from this species that later occurred two subspecies of reasonable man: Reasonable man  Neanderthal (Noto Sapiens Neandertalensis) or Paleoanthrop (stone man) and Man of the rational type (No Sapiens Sapiens) or Neoanthrop (new person).

Judging by the residues found, from Noah Sapiens Archaic previously separated Neanderthal, in which the archaic forms Noah Sapiens reach the top of their development. It is not yet clear whether this transition was confined to a specific locality, but many of the earliest fossil representatives Noah Sapiens found in Europe (in the territories of present-day Germany, France, Spain, Belgium, in the Crimea), which indicates a further geographical expansion of hominids.

Neanderthals lived in Europe and parts of Asia from 300–230 to 30 thousand years ago, and in Australia they existed up to 10 thousand years ago. Neanderthals had a massive skeleton, the average height was about 170 cm, weight - about 70 kg. The skeleton of Neanderthals differed from modern humans in the massiveness of bones and joints, some features of the structure of the bones of the pelvis. They were muscular and rootstocks, reminiscent of the proportions of the bodies of modern Eskimos, which is probably due to the fact that Neanderthals lived in the Ice Age, when the climate was similar to the climate of the modern Arctic.

The structure of the facial skull is characterized by pronounced superciliary arches, a large protruding face, large nasal bones, and they differed in a number of other unique characteristics, such as, for example, the diastema between the third molar and the ascending branch of the lower jaw.

It should be noted that the paleontological discoveries of recent years give reason to talk about underestimating the intellectual capabilities of Neanderthals. Traces of fires and burnt bones of animals were found on all their sites, which indicates the use of fire for cooking. Their tools are much more perfect than those of the ancestral forms. Neanderthals brain mass was about 1500 g, and the departments associated with logical thinking were developed strongly. The bone remains of a Neanderthal man from Saint-Cézaire (France) were found together with the tools of labor characteristic of the Upper Paleolithic man, which indicates the absence of a sharp intellectual boundary between the Neanderthal man and the modern man. There is evidence of ritual burials of Neanderthals in the Middle East, which indicates the origin of their religion.

However, despite their progressive acquisitions, Neanderthals turned out to be a dead-end branch of human development. For unclear reasons, they quickly disappeared, which can be explained, probably, by crowding them out with people with more advanced techniques of making tools and / or their mestization (mixing) with people of the modern type.