The specifics of man as an object of natural science

The specifics of man as an object of natural scienceThe main specific feature of a person as an object of study lies in his biosocial essence. Man is the only species on Earth with a social entity that has become an important factor determining the direction of its evolution.  It is the social essence of a person that determines his modern development as a species and makes it possible to predict the future. One of the difficult issues of modern anthropology is to clarify the role and importance at different stages of anthropogenesis of biological and social factors. It is customary to distinguish three main stages in the formation of a person, each of which differs in the ratio of these groups of factors.

The first stage of anthropogenesis (6–2 million years ago) corresponds to the most ancient stages of hominization, before the appearance of the first representatives of the genus Homo. It is assumed that at this stage the biological factors of evolution were the main ones and prevailed over the social ones. At the second stage (2 million - 200 thousand years ago), corresponding to the evolution of the genus Homo before the emergence of modern man, the action of social factors gradually increased, and their significance was equal to biological factors. The third stage of anthropogenesis (from 200 thousand years ago to the present day), during which the evolution of modern man took place, is characterized by the predominance of social factors over the biological factors of evolution.

The complexity of the problem of correlation of social and biological in the formation of man is also due to the fact that the mechanism of natural selection, which manifested itself most effectively in the early stages of anthropogenesis, formed and strengthened precisely those features of the human biological organization that most favored and contributed to the further progress of human labor activity and the development of society. Socialization of hominids has led to the limitation of the influence of natural selection as a factor of anthropogenesis, since social adaptation to environmental conditions allows weak and poorly adapted individuals to survive together, and, possibly, at the expense of more adapted ones.

Reconstruction of the early stages of sociogenesis is a more complex task than reconstructing the evolution of the morphological types of man and his ancestors. This is explained by the fact that there are no direct data on social relations and the existing social regulators, scientists are forced to use only indirect information. Possible variants of interrelations in hominid communities are assumed by analogy with the structure of animal communities or primitive peoples living now in similar climate-geographical regions.

It should be noted that the formation of the community as a system of organization and biological adaptation of living beings is widespread in the animal world (intestinal cavities, rodents, predators, and others). Such a community is an ordered biological system in which the actions of each individual, aimed at satisfying their own needs, are at the same time useful, and more often absolutely necessary for the whole association.