Theories of the origin of life on Earth

Theories of the origin of life on EarthUnderstand the origin of the species homo sapiens (Homo sapiens) is impossible without parsing elementary evolutionary factors leading to speciation in nature. Therefore, before proceeding to the consideration of anthropogenesis itself, it is necessary to briefly stop  on the main theories on the problems of the origin of life on Earth and speciation.

1. First - Theological (Theological) Theory originates from the first book of Genesis Moses. This theory is the most ancient, however, and today it is actively developed in many countries, primarily in church schools. In this case, it is assumed that the initial information contained in the First Book of Genesis was distorted with its successive translations, first from Ancient Smitic into Greek, then from Greek into Latin and other languages, including Russian. Therefore, with an unequivocal interpretation of ancient texts, their true content, including in the section regarding the origin of the world and man, is lost. Be that as it may, modern theological anthropology is very different from a similar science, for example, the end of the last century; it no longer ignores obvious scientific facts, but tries to explain them. At the same time, the Church refuses many dogmas that were previously considered immutable.

2. Along with the theological concept of the origin of life and man, it has a circulation and a hypothesis about their extragalactic origin, about bringing this life to Earth. This is the so-called Theory of Panspermia. However, there is no point in examining this version in detail in this manual, since, due to the insufficiency of reliable factors, it is of little justification.

3. The most developed currently is Evolutionary theory origin of species and humans as well. Although it does not explain all the facts, most scholars consider this theory to be the most plausible.

According to it, about 15 billion years ago, the Universe appeared as a result of the Big Bang, and galaxies were formed, which since then have been moving at great speed from each other. After the formation of the planet Earth on it, as is possible on other planets under similar conditions, as a result of electrical and chemical reactions in water and the atmosphere 3.5-4 billion years ago, organic compounds were formed, from which life later arose, and the process of perfection began living matter.

To compare the history of man with the history of the universe and the Earth and indirectly answer such questions as, for example, why the species Homo sapiens has not undergone any significant changes since its inception, an “evolutionary calendar” was proposed (Table 1). In this calendar, for clarity, the entire period from the Big Bang to our days is identified with the year. The first second of January 1 corresponds to the moment of the Big Bang.

Table 1

Evolutionary calendar (J. Godfroy, 1996)

of the month




Prescription, years



Big explosion

15 billion



The emergence of our galaxy (the Milky Way)

10 billion



The emergence of the solar system

6 billion



Earth Formation

5 billion



The emergence of life in the seas

4 billion



The emergence of sex (sexual dimorphism)

1 billion


The appearance of the first vertebrates

500 million


The appearance of the first land plants

450 million


The appearance of the first fish

400 million


The appearance of the first amphibians

350 million


The appearance of the first reptiles

300 million

End of Table 1


The appearance of the first mammals

195 million


The appearance of the first birds

150 million


Extinction of giant reptiles; appearance of the first primates

70 million



minutes seconds


The appearance of the first hominid

7.5 million


Appearance of the first people

4 million


Appearance Homo

(skilled person)

2.2 million


Appearance Standing man (Human straightened or erect)

1.5 million

23.42 30 s

Mastering the Fire

500 000

23.53 00 s

The appearance of the first representatives of the species homo sapiens (Reasonable man)

200 000

23.58 36 s

The appearance of the first people in America and Australia

40 000

23.58 57 seconds

This time corresponds to the earliest of the rock paintings found to date.

30 000

23.59 18 s

Beginning of the era of farming

20 000

23.59 41 seconds

The first settlements in the Middle East

9 000

23.59 56 s

Christmas or the zero year of our era

2 000

23.59 59 s

The invention of printing; landing of Christopher Columbus in America


The table below shows that all events related directly to the origin of man occurred on the evolutionary calendar in one day - December 31, and all of recent history - literally a moment in world history.